“Time is the fire we burn in.” Despite the fact that we may struggle to quench its unrelenting flame, scientists have made an effort to divert its path by isolating small enclosures where time slows into a crawl. Within these chambers the frenetic Brownian dance becomes a chaperoned waltz, as temperatures approach absolute zero. The inner environment of Lng vehicle cylinder is actually a world apart, a reminder of your ultimate heat-death that has to befall our universe inside the eons into the future.
For people who attempt to discover truths about the workings in the cell, holding back the floodgates of your energy is an issue of significant proportions. Scientists are often thinking about very specific cell properties that occur at critical junctions from the lifetime of a cell. Holding these processes away while their properties may be exploited is similar to the issue of catching one’s shadow.
Cryogenic freezing of cells has been utilized as one solution to the trouble in the slow burn. By reducing temperatures of samples towards the glass transition phase of -133°C, the temperature at which all metabolic activity goes to a halt, scientists can easily seclude moments soon enough, returning time and again to look into that instant in history.
Unsurprisingly, cryogenics is becoming a vital industry which enables customized products for up to every conceivable purpose. From small tabletop apparatus to industrial-scale liquifiers, the industry in cryogenics provides mechanical freezers, canisters, and dewars in every single size, shape, and configuration imaginable. With such numerous products to pick from familiarity with which ones are handiest may elude the normal consumer. To be able to provide a summary of the most important producers of cryogenic laboratory supplies several manufacturers will likely be profiled on this page.
Ultra-low lab freezers are one of those particular items that a lot of people never think about until they quit working. Built to run for many years without interruption in service, lab freezers will be the quiet sentinels in the laboratory, keeping a vigilant watch within the researcher’s most prized possessions. Most scientists avoid thinking about what might happen if their freezer failed, or they try to erase the memory through the day if it did. A career’s worth of samples might be lost in just one afternoon– numerous years of careful collecting and cataloging reduced to mere puddles on the ground. Though this type of scenario looms ominously from the periphery of each researcher’s consciousness, few are prepared during the day when it actually occurs. Manufacturers of ultra-low lab freezers have got great pains to ensure power failures and refrigerant leaks will never compromise one’s samples. They build machines that are intended to be forgotten.
MMR Technologies is definitely the only company that utilizes the Kleemenko cooling cycle within its refrigerators. Although the natural gas industry provides this system for many years, MMR Technologies was the 1st company to patent the technology and adapt it for really small, lightweight, and portable freezing systems.
The way the Kleemenko cycle works is the fact a mixture of compressed gas and liquid is passed down a countercurrent exchanger and it is able to expand using a capillary or throttling valve. Cooling occurs upon expansion, along with the cool gas passes backup the temperature exchanger, precooling the incoming high-pressure gas. A number of liquid-vapor separators can be incorporated in the cycle in order that the increase of the liquid could be used to precool the vapor (W.A. Little., Presented at ICEC17, Bournemouth, U.K.,July 14-17 1998)
The BIO 120 can be a zero-maintenance, low-power-consumption Kleemenko refrigerator that is made for storing frozen tissue, cell cultures, organs, and the entire body parts. The system allows the scientist to warm and funky samples uniformly without shocking them, and also since they have an internal power source you can use it for your transportation of samples from storage facility to check out laboratory. Robert Paugh, product manager for MMR Technologies, was insistent on the demand for controlled temperature ramping.
“Like a user you need to understand the minimum temperature and how it gets there,” said Paugh. MMR Technologies’ enhanced control systems and printed thermal record of cooling ensures that uniform temperatures happen to be maintained during the entire cooling process.
Kelvinator Scientific, and that is a subsidiary of Frigidaire, provides freezer units for laboratories and pharmacies that are designed for biological samples at temperatures as a result of -86°C. At temperatures this low animal and plant viruses, bacteria, spores, and bacteriophages can be preserved for long periods. Locking lids are given in order to protect samples from accidental being exposed to ambient temperatures. Adjustable shelving, pullout drawers, and drawer partition inserts are helpful for separating different experiments.
NuAire, Inc. credits most of its ultralow freezing capabilities to the heavy-gauge galvanized steel cabinets. The temperature-conducting quality on this material reduces stress on compressors allowing the units to operate longer and colder than would otherwise be possible. Maintaining temperatures at -152°C the NuAire ultralow freezer can perform holding samples below the crystallization point.
In keeping with the Clean Air Act of 1990 for systems using HCFC/HFC refrigerants, NuAire also uses a special mixture of azeotropic gases that are non-flammable and enable on-site recycling. Moreover, a built in timer cycles the low stage compressor every twenty four hours, turning them back so the capillary tubing will likely be cleared of ice formation.
So-Low Environmental Equipment Co. carries a long tradition of making ultralow freezers for laboratory applications. Actually, with 40 years of expertise under its belt, So-Low is probably the oldest manufacturers of ultralow temperature freezers in the commercial. If the Montreal Protocol started the phase away from CFC refrigerants in 1987, So-Low was the first to use Dupont Suva 95, the new CFC-free refrigerant that runs cooler along with less pressure than CFCs. As well as its investigation of environmentally friendly refrigerants, So-Low also has developed a revolutionary compressor that may be designed exclusively for its ultralow freezers.
Forma Scientific offers both mechanical and liquid nitrogen storage systems for preserving samples at ultralow temperatures. The mechanical freezers preserve specimens to -86°C, while Forma’s liquid nitrogen freezers store samples at -133°C. Unlike its competitors’ liquid nitrogen freezers, however, Forma provides square cross-section units as an option to the usual cylindrical containers. Every one of these cabinets is constructed of cold-rolled steel. Forma’s counterbalanced lids provide easy access, an optional thermal data printer continuously documents all operational functions, plus a storage system adjusts to fit a variety of tube sizes. Forma also provides a patented double door unit that separates long term from everyday storage.
Revco is amongst the largest manufacturers of laboratory freezers with more than fifty years of experience in the market. Revco’s Elite, Value, and Ultima mechanical freezers sustain temperatures from -10°C to as low as -120°C without CFC refrigerants and can be bought in chest, upright, and tabletop models. Its sophisticated Ultima freezers offer automatic electronic systems that constantly adjust conditions to the external and internal environment, correcting for subtle fluctuations in ambient temperature, excessive loading with warm samples, and dirty filters. Additionally, it includes a scrubbing cycle that removes vaporized lubricating oil through the evaporating coils.
Sanyo has become manufacturing laboratory and medical freezers in excess of 20 years, beginning with its manufacturing of the initial -40°C chest freezer in 1974. Sanyo duplicated this achievement with the development of the 1st -152°C ultralow temperature freezer in 1991 and additional demonstrated its position by becoming the 1st manufacturer to provide a complete array of CFC-free medical freezers. Today, Sanyo offers one of several largest selections of ultralow temperature lab freezers on the market today. Sanyo’s upright and chest freezers are equipped for utilization in preserving cells, bacteria, spores, pollen, sperm, protozoa, and blood components for academic and industrial research.
The word dewar, originally placed on double walled glass vacuum flasks, is already applied to an array of insulated vessels intended for maintenance of samples in liquid nitrogen. Depending on their size, dewars usually rest on to the floor or sit on tabletops where samples can be accessed. As a result of quality of insulation materials, some dewars have maintained critical temperatures as long as twelve months without being regenerated with liquid nitrogen. The typical thermal wall includes an aluminum or steel sandwich full of polyurethane. The dimensions and configuration of dewars vary to this kind of extent that many companies build custom dewars to buy. Some of these companies in addition to their products are reviewed from the following section.
From Alaskan salmon eggs to embryos from Idaho’s chicken farms, MVE made laboratory freezers for numerous types of applications. Naturally, animal breeders are simply a small amount of its customers. Blood and cell storage as well as organ shipment are an equally large part of MVE’s business with medical and pharmaceutical applications representing the quickest-growing area of the marketplace for the company’s products.
MVE was the first company to produce biological freezers able to maintaining a -190°C environment to get a full year without refilling with nitrogen. Since that point MVE has released the full type of XLC series liquid and vapor-phase freezers. The XLC liquid nitrogen freezers are capable of handling approximately 36,000 vials at temperatures as little as -195.8°C. The vapor-phase freezers are suitable for cells that can be stored at -125°C but will become damaged or discolored at critical temperatures achieved by liquid nitrogen freezers. The vapor-phase freezers will also be ideal for storing hazardous materials that could cross-communicate in a liquid medium, including contaminated-blood bags which can be liable to break open.
Quantum Technology is actually a worldwide manufacturer and supplier of laboratory freezers with offices in america and Germany. Its product line includes everything from compressors and temperature sensors to gas wells and vacuum shrouds.
Based on Sean Wolf, product manager for Quantum Technology, one of the ways his company has been able to remain competitive is simply by offering on-site service and warranty repair. Another major selling point of Quantum’s refrigeration systems is they might be customized.
Among Quantum Technology’s most favored products can be a helium recovery system. Although liquid helium is only $4 or $5 per liter, in many countries outside of The United States and Europe, the cost of purchasing helium is a concern of concern. That is amongst the main reasons why Quantum Technology makes an efficient two-stage and three-stage closed-cycle refrigerator when the helium is retained within the system. The helium using this refrigerator is reliquified for usage over and over.
Lab-Line Instruments, designer and manufacturer of dewars for scientific research and recently acquired subsidiary of Barnstead Thermolyne, offers a Thermo-Flask collection of products which include wide-mouth flasks, insulated Thermo-Cups, steel Thermo-Flasks, and enameled steel Thermo-Flasks. Twenty-six different models are offered with capacities from 200 cc to 10 liters, and each of these models is available by using a 24-month warranty. Other special highlights of the Thermo-Flask type of products include vented lids to prevent pressure build-up, fold-down handles, and borosilicate inner vessels evacuated to offer coolant retention for samples stored in liquid nitrogen or solid CO2.
Barnstead Thermolyne manufactures the Bio-Cane and Locator Plus cryogenic storage systems, that are distributed by a variety of companies throughout the us. The Bio-Cane systems can be found in five sizes and give features such as super vacuum insulation, ampule cans, a polycarbonate lid, and color-coded canisters for inventory identification. The Locator Plus storage systems can be bought in four sizes and also have capacities of up to 6,000 vials. Together with several of the standard features present in the Bio-Cane, the Locator provides hanging racks using a gridded box design, audible and visual alarms that warn of low-level conditions, as well as an ultrasonic liquid level monitor that eliminates exposure to liquid nitrogen and consequently reduces evaporation.
Pope Scientific makes a number of traditional dewar flasks in “cylindrical,” “low form shallow,” and “spherical” styles. All Pope dewars are manufactured from borosilicate glass paid by a protective mesh, as well as every wide-mouth model features a vented polyethylene stopper to lower evaporation. Wide-mouth dewars can also be jacketed in aluminum casing for additional safety.
Pope Scientific’s narrow-mouth or “constricted-neck” dewars are best for temporary storage or transfer applications with holding times in excess of 2 weeks. Most of these units come designed with a small-evaporation stopper, an entirely shielded evacuation tip, a weighted base, and protective mesh. Alternatives for these instruments include fiberglass caddies for carrying or decanting.
Taylor-Wharton International helps to make the K Series, XT (Extended Time), HC (High Capacity), and RS (Rack System) dewars that enable the researcher to hold large quantities of semen, embryos, and biological samples at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. Each one of these units is complemented by its unique inventory control system, which is designed to maximize the quantity of vials that could be safely arranged in a canister-type storage device. By either immersing samples in liquid nitrogen or suspending them in nitrogen vapor, vials may be maintained at temperatures of -196° C.
Cryogenic Tubes are one of the most frequently used and least considered implements from the researcher’s tool box. Bags of tubes are stuffed into corners and forgotten until they mysteriously run out 1 day. Then it is time to travel shopping. Making decisions about buying cryogenic tubes is generally guided by three primary issues, the 1st of which concerns the challenge of if they are externally or internally threaded. Advocates of externally threaded vials advise that material is trapped in the threads of internally threaded vials, while proponents of the internally threaded sort believe that externally threaded vials will be more easily contaminated by accidental contact. Although reports have been conducted in an attempt to confirm or refute these claims, these have not been conclusive, and also the debate continues.
An additional consideration that comes into account when purchasing cryogenic tubes is definitely the material through which they may be constructed. While plastic vials are, perhaps, more durable than glass, they be more difficult to warm which may negatively modify the viability of some cells. Some plastic tubes can be contaminated with releasing fluids through the molding process. However, releasing fluids are easy to remove with the care and attention, plus some companies like Axygen are embracing new polished molds which do not require the use of releasing fluids. Glass, alternatively, warms rapidly but can also be at the mercy of fracture on account of microchannels which may form inside the glass, causing leakage of sample contents, and even violent explosions. Plastic vials can also be susceptible to nitrogen penetration but the opportunity of explosion will not be as great.
Gasketing has additionally been a concern of some contention in this particular industry. Many cryovials have a washer that keeps the inner pressure of your vial from expelling the tube’s contents after it is warmed to ambient conditions. The rapid expansion of gas within the tube is sufficient force cells and fluid throughout the lids of several non-gasketed cryotubes. Silicon is normally preferred as being the best material for insulating caps against leakage. Although rubber can also be used, it comes with a tendency to lose its elasticity when dropped to freezing temperatures, a problem which was demonstrated once the “O” rings about the space shuttle Challenger failed.
Simport Plastics, headquartered in Quebec, supplies a large selection of cryotubes and microcentrifuge tubes which you can use at temperatures only -190°C. Made for handling biological samples under freezing conditions for prolonged periods, its Cryovials™ come built with attached leak proof caps that consist of a dual lip and a silicon washer. An exclusive ridge on each cap makes handling easier, adding to one-hand aseptic technique, and color-coded cap inserts in conjunction with white marking areas make each vial easily identifiable.
Evergreen Scientific manufactures the CryoSure® make of vials for storing cell cultures, blood/serum specimens, sperm, and other biological fluids at vapor-phase liquid nitrogen temperatures (-195°C). CryoSure vials are available in 1. ml, 1.5 ml, and three.5 ml sizes and come in round-bottom and freestanding configurations.
Evergreen also has a wide selection of microcentrifuge tubes that range in capacities from 250 µ l to 2. ml. These include polypropylene tubes, that may be used in combination with solvents, alcohols, chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons, and ketones. These tubes are sterilized using gamma radiation and so are pressure tested in a vacuum chamber so that the reliability of its double-sealing screw caps.
Evergreen has developed a new microcentrifuge tube, in cooperation with Washington University Lipid Research Center, to be used in lipid fractionation studies. This is a 1.5 ml polystyrene tube with the 11 mm high-density polyethylene cap. One of the outstanding features of this tube is it is utterly transparent.
Nalgene® and Nunc™ cryogenic vials include a range of externally and internally threaded vials from 1. to 5. ml capacities which can be silicone gasketed and guaranteed to be used inside a centrifuge. The Nalgene 5000 series vials feature graduations and so are certified to be sterile, noncytotoxic and nonpyrogenic, even though the System 100 vials are certain to be leakproof inside a microcentrifuge up to 8,000 g and throughout shipment and transport. However, the company warns that cryotubes improperly sealed in liquid phase may lead to an explosion or biohazard release. Nalgene and Nunc have given CryoFlex Tubing to avert this contingency.
Wheaton Science Products makes tubes and flasks for almost every eventuality. From serum bottles to mobile phase reservoirs, it offers developed a comprehensive catalog of products for handling liquid samples. Wheaton’s Cryules® are available in both plastic and glass. The glass Cryule is manufactured out of Wheaton-33° low extractable glass that can be hermetically sealed. They are suitable for the preservation of biological materials with liquid nitrogen at low temperatures. Wheaton’s plastic Cryules are autoclavable and, like every one of the glass Cryules, can withstand temperatures between -196°C and 121°C. Wheaton Vacules are vials that are constructed for lyophilization and freeze-drying. Their heavy-wall construction causes them to be exceptionally durable, and they can be flame sealed or stored with a wide array of stoppers and caps.
Corning Incorporated Science Products Division makes some polypropylene vials that are designed for use at temperatures to -196°C. These come built with a variety of features including color-coded caps, silicon and rubber washers for secure sealing of contents, and simple-to-read graduations for partial volumes. Self-standing and locking features can be found with selected styles. All of Corning’s vials are supplied sterile and certified as nonpyrogenic.
Axygen Scientific Inc. makes microcentrifuge and screw-cap tubes for storing samples at subfreezing temperatures which are made with 99.9 percent pure polypropylene without any mineral fillers or heavy metals. Foreign substances are added only at the request in the customer, and Axygen’s colorants contain no metallic ions including iron, chromium, or nickel that happen to be typical constituents of dyes. All the company’s vials was designed to snap closed in a locked position for centrifugation, and special piercing ports make your insertion of syringes easier for collecting samples. Axygen’s “O” ring closure system incorporates a patent-pending alignment system that guarantees how the microtube is aligned from the centrifuge rotor to become re-spun without disturbing the pelletized sediment.
Sarstedt Inc. comes with an extensive catalog of microcentrifuge tubes that are suitable for both freezing at ultralow temperatures and centrifugation which come in an assortment of sizes, shapes, and colors. The consumer has the choice of choosing from various externally threaded microtubes with attached or enclosed screw caps that may be colored for identification. Most of Sarstedt’s tubes are sterile, as well as the polypropylene material from where these are constructed enables them to endure subfreezing temperatures and also temperatures and pressures within an autoclave. One of the areas that Sarstedt has paid particular attention to in developing its collection of products is the requirement for cryogenic vials that include reaction buffers and enzymes for PCR applications.
Stockwell Scientific manufacturers CRYO-LOK® Cryogenic Vials and screw- cap microcentrifuge tubes for storage and transport at ultralow temperatures. These range in capacity from .5 ml to 3.5 ml and are available in conical and skirted configurations. Stockwell’s microcentrifuge tubes may be subjected to a centrifugal force of 20,000 g and every one of its O-ring sealed tubes has become sterilized.
Storage inventory systems can be a critical part of any long term protocol for cryogenic preservation. Once cryogenic vials are stored at subfreezing temperatures they might undergo changes that make them difficult to keep trace. Labels could become brittle, breaking and separating from vials, and improperly stored tubes can be dropped into liquid nitrogen making retrieval difficult and costly. Probably the most popular techniques for containing samples may be the canister and cane. Applying this technique, a number of vials are enclosed in just a long aluminum shaft that is submerged within liquid nitrogen. The canes can be simply manipulated for small sample volumes and protect vials from damage that could occur from bumping or agitation. For greater storage capacities, however, the drawer product is usually preferred. Although drawer systems often expose more samples to warming during exchange, the accessibility from the system reduces exposure time and energy to ambient temperatures causing less evaporation from your freezer, and also decreases the researcher’s exposure to potentially harmful cryogens.
Forma Scientific makes rack inventory systems for liquid-phase and vapor-phase storage. These racks are meant to optimize the amount of storage area afforded by Forma’s liquid nitrogen containers. The typical inventory configuration is a cardboard or stainless construction arranged into arrowhead or square designs. Vertical inventory systems enable the user to arrange as much as 82 racks at maximum density.
TetraLink International concentrates on making storage boxes and rack systems for cryogenic storage. Designed for the widest possible applicability, its freezer storage systems can be bought in a multitude of sizes, shapes, and colors to put virtually any freezer. Clear lids allow contents being viewed without opening the containers, and they could be adjusted in a few models to support tubes of varying heights. Round holes provide spacing with clearance for snap-seal and safe-lock caps. TetraLink’s Racksys storage system uses sliding drawers that contain storage racks for holding as much as 267 microtubes. These drawers might be installed in any upright freezer or refrigerator.
Nalgene and Nunc storage systems comprise a number of plastic or chipboard containers for microcentrifuge tubes and glass vials. These are generally keyed to stop misalignment and offer temperature resistance from -196°C to 121°C.
Nalgene® CryoBox Racks provide steel retainer systems works with all Nalgene and Nunc storage boxes. They have vertical and horizontal storage for boxes that maintain each box separately for simple retrieval.
National Labnet provides freezer racks and storage boxes for an increasing selection of sample containers. As high-throughput experiments require greater reserves of reagents, Cryogenic Movable tank has responded with boxes and racks which are constructed for numerous samples of both well plates and cryovials. They have also introduced boxes with telescoping lids so that you can satisfy requirements for single box containers with vials of differing sizes.
Custom Biogenic Systems is probably the largest manufacturers of rack systems for cryogenic packing containers. In fact, most of its goods are sold as standard accessories with a few of the major producers of laboratory freezers. Its pie-shaped racks are built from stainless-steel and include a selection of cardboard, aluminum, or stainless steel boxes with 1/2 inch or 5/8″ cell dividers. These systems can be acquired as individual units or as complete racks to be used in vapor- phase or liquid-phase storage.
Most likely, the cryogenic products one buys today would be the same ones that will be used for many years. An investment made today may continue for ten years. Essentially, researchers buying Cryogenic Centrifugal Pump are not just buying products for their own reasons, they are buying for his or her successors. The consumer should look into what might 46dexkpky throughout years if their samples become degraded or contaminated due to improper storage. A little bit money which was saved at the beginning by scrimping on vials or freezers might not exactly appear to be the best trade off when valuable samples are lost. Despite the safeguards internal to many of these devices many product managers recommend making regular maintenance on the products important. Appointing a permanent position that is accountable for the cryogenic safety of your laboratory’s biological collection is probably the guidelines on how to assure the integrity of those samples.